Here, we have an op amp implementation of the binary-weighted summer known as the R-2R ladder digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The advantage of this circuit is that there is not a requirement to have a wide range of different resistor values as found in the binary-weight DAC. We’ll again use 4-bit digital input as an example when analyzing the digital-to-analog circuit and using the concept of superposition. The analysis is relative involved so there will be two more articles to complete the analysis

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